after song dynasty
The Zizhi Tongjian covers the people, places, and events of Chinese history from the beginning of the Warring States in 403 BC until the beginning of the Song dynasty in 959. Weiterhin war die Existenz des Tanguten-Reiches in Gansu und die des Staates Nánzhāo (Bai, aber auch Thai, Tibeter, Chinesen mit Hauptstadt Dali) in Yunnan zu verzeichnen. After the collapse of the Tang dynasty, China suffers through a period of disorder. März 1279, einer der größten Seeschlachten in der Weltgeschichte, ertränkte Premierminister und Kaiserberater Lu Xiufu (陸秀夫 / 陆秀夫, 1232–1279) den 8-jährigen Thronerben Bing und sich durch einen Sprung in den Perlfluss. ständig, war aber qualitativ nicht sehr hochwertig: Bei einer Truppenverlegung passierte es z. , After capturing Kaifeng, the Jurchens went on to conquer the rest of northern China, while the Song Chinese court fled south.  By at least the 13th century, the Chinese were even familiar with the story of the ancient Lighthouse of Alexandria since it is described at length by Zhao Rugua, a Southern Song customs inspector of Quanzhou.. Im frühen 11.  Hangzhou and Nanjing were devastated by the Jin raids; both cities were heavily repopulated with northern refugees who outnumbered the remaining original inhabitants. Banking on the possibility that the Song were weak enough to be destroyed, the Jurchens made a sudden and unprovoked attack against the Song in the north. Dazu kam der Aufstieg der Städte unabhängig von ihrer politischen Bedeutung, ausgelöst durch die Landflucht und das Bevölkerungswachstum. Um 1263 wurde die innenpolitische Lage in den Ackerbauzentren südlich des Jangtsekiang derart prekär, dass das Einziehen der Steuern schwierig wurde: Reformen wurden unumgänglich. DALLAS, TX.- An extremely rare painting from the Song Dynasty (960-1279 A.D.) of polo players riding donkeys soared to $675,000 to lead Heritage Auctions' Fine & Decorative Asian Art Auction to $1,337,455 in sales Dec. 11.  Nordwestlich des Song-Reiches hatten die Tanguten die Macht, seit die Tang im Jahre 881 einen Tanguten-Anführer zum Militärgouverneur (jiedushi) ernannt hatte. Die Song mussten auf gute nachbarschaftliche Beziehungen mit den Liao achten. Happiness is to have the wealth and means to enjoy life, and then to be able to leave the same prosperity to one's descendents. Das städtische Bürgertum (Grundeigentümer, Kaufleute) wurde wohlhabend und wünschte seinen Anteil am Luxus, egal ob es nun um Möbel, Kleidung oder Küche ging. The Song Empire (960–1279) was generally prosperous and at the time it was the world's most powerful empire economically, scientifically, and militarily. Song schaffte es jedoch nicht, die Sechzehn Präfekturen zu annektieren.  However, when the Jin court moved from Beijing to Kaifeng, Genghis saw this move as a revolt, and moved upon the old Jin capital at Beijing in 1215, sacking and burning it. , In 1121–23, Song forces fared badly against the Liao, but the Jin succeeded in driving the Liao to Central Asia.  The Chinese were keen to import goods such as rare woods, precious metals, gems, spices, and ivory, while exporting goods such as silk, ceramics, lacquer-ware, copper cash, dyes, and even books. Promotion to a higher post, higher salary, additional honors, and selection for choice assignment responsibilities were often uncertain, as young new officials often needed higher-ranking officials to recommend them for service. Soon enough, even the capital at Kaifeng was under siege by Jin forces, only staved off when an enormous bribe was handed over to them.  Die Verhandlungen führten zum Vertrag von Chanyuan, der im Januar 1005 unterschrieben wurde (in manchen Werken wird wegen des chinesischen Kalenders das Jahr 1004 angegeben) und der zwischen Song und Liao den Status quo ante festlegte. Wanyan Liang established a military campaign against the Southern Song in 1161, with 70,000 naval troops aboard 600 warships facing a smaller Song fleet of only 120 warships and 3,000 men.  Kublai rejected the proposal since he was already in a favorable strategic position on the other side of the Yangzi. , Although Möngke's forces stalled the war effort immediately after his death, his younger brother Kublai continued to fight the Southern Song along the Yangzi River for the next two months into the autumn of 1259. Am nächsten Tag sollen alle Militärs ihren Rücktritt eingereicht und sich aufs Land zurückgezogen haben.. , During the reign of Emperor Xiaozong of Song, the Chinese increased the number of trade missions that would dock at ports throughout the Indian Ocean, where Arab and Hindu influence was once predominant. Undoing what Wang had implemented, Sima dismissed the New Policies, and forced the same treatment upon Reformers that Wang had earlier meted out to his opponents: dismissal to lower or frontier posts of governance, or even exile.  When the now "mentally weak and distracted ruler" Yingzong—as Anderson describes him—received the report, he took no other action but to reassign Nùng Tông Đán with new honorific titles. The Fatimid-era Egyptian sea captain Domiyat traveled to a Buddhist site of pilgrimage in Shandong in 1008, where he presented the Chinese Emperor Zhenzong of Song with gifts from his ruling Imam Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, establishing diplomatic relations between Egypt and China that had been lost during the collapse of the Tang dynasty in 907 (while the Fatimid state was established three years later in 910).  Kublai made a daring advance across the river during a storm, and assaulted the Southern Song troops on the other side.  An international force – composed of Chinese, Jurchens, Koreans, Mongols, Uyghur Turks, and Middle Eastern Muslims— contributed to Kublai's siege effort in crafting ships and artillery. Die Rolle des Kanzlers war dabei stets bedeutend. If you, my officers, will renounce your military authority, retire to the provinces, and choose there the best lands and the most delightful dwelling-places, there to pass the rest of your lives in pleasure and peace...would this not be better than to live a life of peril and uncertainty? Although the Jin Dynasty had launched several southward aggressions, most fell by the way.  The besieged city was captured by the Jurchens in less than two months. viele Großgrundbesitzer umgebracht: sie waren immer die ersten Opfer bei Erhebungen und Kriegen und an ihre Stelle waren freie Kleinbauern getreten. verstärkter Einsatz des Schaufelrads, Tiefenbohrungen nach Sole und Erdgas (durchschnittlich bis 900 m), bessere Militärtechnik (Schießpulver auf 1044 datiert) und weiteres. Song Taizu strictly maintained the separation of officials controlling these institutions after 964. him lose his sense of taste. This invasion resulted in the Song conquest of border regions inhabited by Tai peoples and a border confrontation with the Lý dynasty (1010–1225) that lasted from 1075 to 1077. Scar of Garrision 9. Drei Reiche (Wei-Dynastie • Shu Han • Wu-Dynastie) |  The court took no action to resolve the problem, and Nùng Tông Đán later played a key role in the Lý–Song War of 1075–1077. Die Großgrundbesitzer bekamen die Steuern ihrer Pächter (40–50 % jeder Ernte), gaben aber nur wenig davon an den Staat weiter. Jia Sidao erwies sich dabei als rücksichtsloser Intrigant. This balance of power disrupted, the Jurchens then turned on the Song, resulting in the fall of the Northern Song and the subsequent establishment of the Southern Song. He employed the Imperial Workshop to support such projects as Zhang Sixun's hydraulic-powered armillary sphere (for astronomical observation and time-keeping) that used liquid mercury instead of water (because liquid mercury would not freeze during winter).  Although the now small Jin state attempted to defend against the Mongols and even fought battles with the Song in 1216 and 1223, the Jin were attacked by the Mongols again in 1229 with the ascension of Ögedei Khan. The new Vietnamese ruler, Lý Công Uẩn, replaced the house of Lê in November 1009, and Song China continued recognizing the Lý monarchs like previous. As the once great Indian Ocean maritime power of the Chola dynasty in medieval India had waned and declined, Chinese sailors and seafarers began to increase their own maritime activity in South East Asia and into the Indian Ocean.  Much later, in 1077, the Indian Chola ruler Kulothunga Chola I (who the Chinese called Ti-hua-kia-lo) sent a trade embassy to the court of Emperor Shenzong of Song, and made lucrative profits in selling goods to China. Die Gentry erlaubten zudem eine soziale Gesetzgebung, was die Wohlfahrt begünstigte (z. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 15. Sung Ch'ao) war von 960 bis 1279 die herrschende Dynastie im Kaiserreich China. Although the Song only ruled over a relatively small area compared to the Han 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE), the Tang 唐 (618-907) or the Qing 清 (1644-1911) dynasties, their age is seen as a time of economical, cultural and social prosperity and often dubbed the Chinese renaissance.  Der gesamte Hof wurde in die Mandschurei deportiert. In his New Policies sponsored by Shenzong, Wang Anshi enhanced central authority over Song's frontier administrations, increased militia activity, increased troop levels and war horses sent to the frontiers (including the border areas with Đại Việt), and actively sought loyal supporters in border regions who could heighten the pace of extraction of local resources for the state's disposal. Beamte erhielten 80 freie Tage im Jahr und 50 % (und mehr) des Gehaltes als Pension, weiterhin bekamen sie eine gewisse Menge Landbesitz als steuerfreien Gehaltszuschlag. Introduction of a local militia in order to lessen the budget of expenses paid for upholding the official standing army, which had grown dramatically to roughly 1 million soldiers by 1022. , Any hope of resistance was centered on two young princes, Emperor Gong's brothers.  Wang Han took a personal visit to Nùng Tông Đán's camp and spoke with Nùng Trí Cao's son, explaining that seeking "Interior Dependency" status would alienate them from the Vietnamese, but if they remained outside of China proper they could safely act as loyal frontier militia. , Subsequently, the Zhuang rebel Nong Zhigao (Nùng Trí Cao) (1025–1053) attempted to establish his own frontier kingdom in 1042, 1048, and 1052, creating a disturbance on Song's southern border that prompted an invasion against Nong Zhigao/Nùng Trí Cao's forces in the 1050s. In 1127, he fled to Nanjing Yingtianfu (in current Shangqiu of Henan Province) and established the Southern Song Dynasty there.  It was later edited and published by the Jesuit Abbé, Jean Baptiste Gabriel Alexandre Grosier (1743–1823), in part with Le Roux des Hauterays, where a thirteenth volume and a title page were added. After forcing the last emperor of the Latter Zhou to yield the throne, he established the Northern Song Dynasty in Kaifeng (the provincial capital of Henan Province). However, their forces were greatly overextended and any possible escape route was in danger of being blocked by Song forces. Scar of Garrision 9. The new nineteen-year-old Emperor Shenzong (r. 1067–1085) had an instant liking of Wang Anshi when he submitted a long memorial to the throne that criticized the practices of state schools and the examination system itself.  This bolstered his kingdom's strength in a time of conflict with Champa (located in southern Vietnam). , Taizu hatte großes Interesse an Wissenschaft und Technik. Die hohen Kosten der Armee bedeuteten nicht gleichzeitig eine hohe Schlagkraft. Zhao Kuangyin became Emperor Taizu, the first emperor of the Song Dynasty. The Song Dynasty Restores China After the fall of the Tang Dynasty, rival warlords divided China into separate kingdoms.  In den 1070er Jahren konnte Song erfolgreich Xia-Territorien erobern. Four years later in spring 1168, Emperor Shizong of Jin dynasty sent an emissary to Thăng Long, tried to install a nominate tributary relationship with Đại Việt. Am 9. Entscheidend für den Untergang der nördlichen Song-Dynastie (北宋, Běi Sòng) war die im Januar 1127 erfolgte Gefangennahme des Kaisers Huizong und seines Sohnes bei der Eroberung von Kaifeng durch die Jurchen (Jin-Dynastie), nachdem die Stadt bereits seit dem Februar 1126 von einem Jurchenheer umstellt worden war.  With the border fixed at the Huai, the Song government would promote an immigration policy of repopulating and resettling territories north of the Yangzi River, since vast tracts of vacant land between the Yangzi and Huai were open for landless peasants found in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, and Fujian provinces of the south. To the northwest the Song Empire frequently quarreled with the rival Western Xia, led by the Tanguts, as well as the Liao Dynasty to the northeast, led by ethnic Khitans. Muslims from foreign nations dominated the import and export industry (see Islam during the Song dynasty). Wenn sie zu einflussreich werden drohten, griff der Staat ein.  Using a mass of arrow fire from crossbowmen, Song forces were able to defeat the renowned war elephant corps of the Southern Han on 23 January 971, thus forcing the submission of Southern Han and terminating the first and last elephant corps that would make up a regular division within a Chinese army. 38 As we will see below, he also went to great lengths to create separations within the army structure itself. Huizong banned the writing of Sima Guang and his lackeys while elevating Wang Anshi to near revered status, having a statue of Wang erected in a Confucian temple alongside a statue of Mencius. Her greatest political ally was Sima Guang (1019–1086), who was made the next Chancellor. The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that succeeded the period referred to as Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960) and preceded the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), which conquered the Song dynasty in 1279.  He successfully defended his fortified position, yet the new Grand Councillor Cai Que held him responsible for the death of a rival Song military officer and the decimation of that officer's forces; as a result, Shen Kuo was ousted from office and the state abandoned the projected land that Shen was able to defend. This historical work was later compiled and condensed into fifty nine different books by the Neo-Confucian philosopher Zhu Xi in 1189, yet his pupils had to complete the work shortly after his death in 1200. Instituting a more up-to-date land survey system in order to properly assess the land tax.  He also commended the silk manufactured at Quanzhou as being unparalleled in the world for its quality, while the Chinese capital at Hangzhou was best known throughout the Islamic world for being a major producer of glass wares. However, Shi Tianze died in 1275; Bayan was then granted a force of 200,000 (composed mostly of Han Chinese) to assault Song.  Ab 999 führte Liao jährliche Angriffe auf Song durch, ohne nennenswerte Fortschritte zu erzielen. Wang Anshi konnte sich bei Hofe nicht halten und wurde 1076 verbannt, 1078 wieder eingesetzt und 1085 erneut entmachtet.  Officials at court debated the merits or faults of Wang's policies, yet criticism of his reforms even appeared in Đại Việt, where the high officer Lý Thường Kiệt (1019–1105) publicly announced that Wang's policies were deliberate efforts to seize and control their border frontiers. Fall of the Song Dynasty by Mysterain, released 13 October 2020 1. Prüfungsbögen wurden anonym behandelt. The Song Dynasty, like the Tang, lasted about three centuries (960–1279). , Die Beziehungen zwischen Song und Liao waren danach weiterhin feindlich und angespannt. The Return Nine songs for nine stories about Song Dynasty in China. In the Song dynasty, tea-horse trade appeared in many places of China such as in the northwest and northeast areas. From the 2nd century onwards, ancient Chinese histories even record that embassies of the Roman Empire ("Daqin") and Byzantine Empire ("Fu lin") arrived in China.  Hangzhou was chosen not only for its natural scenic beauty, but for the surrounding topographic barriers of lakes and muddy rice-fields that gave it defensive potential against northern armies comprising mostly cavalry. East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. Innovative military tactics, such as defending supply lines across floating pontoon bridges led to success in battle such as the Song assault against the Southern Tang state while crossing the Yangzi River in 974.  Indeed, the court administration at Hangzhou lived up to this ideal, and were successful for a time in employing their navy to defend their interests against an often hostile neighbor to the north. Am 10. Decades after Yue's death, the later Emperor Xiaozong of Song honored Yue Fei as a national hero in 1162, providing him proper burial and memorial of a shrine. By Han_Wudi Category: East Asia: China. Januar 1035 sandte Li Yuanhao Tribut in Höhe von fünfzig Pferden an den Hof der Song, bat um eine Kopie eines buddhistischen Kanons, woraufhin die diplomatischen Beziehungen wiederhergestellt wurden. , In 1129, Emperor Gaozong designated the site at Hangzhou (known then as Lin'an) to be the temporary settlement of the court, but it was not until 1132 that it was declared the new Song capital. , Relations broke down once more in 1067 with the ascension of Emperor Shenzong of Song, and in the 1070s the Song had considerable success in capturing Tangut territory. Song • The Song Dynasty. The Song Dynasty. Thus although more people were taking exams, roughly the same number were being accepted into the government as in previous periods, making the civil service exams very competitive amongst aspiring students and scholars. The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279) of China was a ruling dynasty that controlled China proper and southern China from the middle of the 10th century into the last quarter of the 13th century. The Song dynasty 宋 (960-1279) was one of the great dynasties ruling over China. Die einzelnen Regionen waren wirtschaftlich nicht mehr autark, d. h. bestimmte Regionen standen nun für bestimmte Produkte (Eisen, Zucker, Reis, Tee), und das beeinflusste Binnenhandel und -verkehr positiv. Overview of innovation and causes of prosperity and stability during the Song Dynasty (both Northern and Southern Song Dynasties). (2008). In 1279 The song Dynasty was defeated by the Jin Empire and then after that the Mongols. , As a result, Thường Kiệt made peace overtures to the Song; the Song commander Guo Kui agreed to withdraw his troops, but kept five disputed regions of Quảng Nguyên (renamed Shun'anzhou or Thuận Châu), Tư Lang Châu, Môn Châu, Tô Mậu Châu, and Quảng Lăng. The Song dynasty was able to defeat further Jurchen invasions and even fought the Jin dynasty in an erstwhile alliance with the Mongols. The Song dynasty was formed after the fall the Tang dynasty. Yue Fei in particular had been preparing to recapture Kaifeng (or Bianjing as the city was known during the Song period), the former capital of the Song dynasty and the then southern capital of the Jin, after a streak of uninterrupted military victories. Wir verzeichnen eine Zunahme des Block- und Buchdrucks, Einführung des Papiergelds 1024, eine Weiterentwicklung der Schifffahrt (ca. After your laughter comes tears You ain't the first, but you gonna be the last one Coming round here, tryna pull a fast one D.Y.  Upon their arrival and attempts to solve the conflict through diplomatic means, Jia Sidao ordered Kublai's embassy to be detained. Es folgten neue kriegerische Zusammenstöße zwischen Xia und Song. In 1125, a Vietnamese tributary envoy came to Song dynasty's capital Kaifeng to sent gifts. … The older brother became ill and died on May 8, 1278 at age ten, and was succeeded by his younger brother who became Emperor Huaizong of Song, aged seven.  After a forty-two-day siege, Yongzhou was breached and razed to the ground. There was also an effective use of Song Chinese war machines in the defense of Kaifeng in 1126, as it was recorded that 500 catapults hurling debris were used. Während der Feierlichkeiten sprach er mit ihnen über die Möglichkeit eines Staatsstreiches gegen ihn wie während der Zeit der Fünf Dynastien. B., dass die Soldaten ihr Gepäck nicht selbst tragen wollten; man musste eine Armee von Trägern anstellen.  Kublai made an attempt to starve the city of its supply lines by gaining naval supremacy along the Han River in a gigantic blockade.  During the two decades of relative regional peace that followed, the Vietnamese observed the threat of Song expansion, as more Han Chinese settlers moved into areas which the Vietnamese relied upon for the extraction of natural resources. Die Mongolen (ab 1271 Yuan-Dynastie) hatten inzwischen ihre Herrschaft über Nordchina etabliert, die Hauptstadt nach Peking verlagert, und nun wurde die Eroberung Südchinas das Ziel. The maps of all the pao were joined together to make a map of the tu (larger district), and these in turn were joined with others to make a map of the hsiang and the hsien (still larger districts).  The Song also prepared for armed conflict, increasing the overall size of the armed forces to a million soldiers by 1022.  Er konnte zwar seine Position halten, der neue Großkanzler Cai Que machte ihn jedoch für den Tod eines Song-Offiziers und den Tod zahlreicher Soldaten verantwortlich und enthob ihn seines Amtes. Huiping Pang, "Zouchu gongqiang: you huajiashisanke tan nansong gongtinghuashi de mingjjan xing" (Get out of the Palace: From Southern Song Court Painters to Folk Limners), Huiping Pang, "Nansonghuayuan zhi shengshezhizhi yu houshi xiangxiang" (The Organization of the So-called Southern Song Painting Academy as a Post-1279 Imaginary Construct), Gugong Xuekan (. And the tea-horse trade began to be attached much importance by the Song court, which set up the Official-Run Tea for Horse Department in 1082 to specially take charge of exchanging horses from the neighboring minorities with tea.  There were other notable international seaports in China during the Song period as well, including Xiamen (or Amoy). Sie teilt sich in die „Nördliche“ und „Südliche“ Song-Dynastie. , The Vietnamese court discovered the Song's secret attempt to ally with Champa; while Dai Viet sent a delegation to Yongzhou to thank Song for putting down local rebellions and to negotiate terms of peace, they instructed their agents to gather intelligence on the alleged Champa alliance and the strength of Song's military presence in the Guangnan Western Circuit. , The Guangnan West Circuit Fiscal Commissioner, Wang Han (fl. The lot accounted for … The new triangular arrangement between the Southern Song, Jin, and Western Xia continued the age of division and conflict in China.  Song Prime Minister Lu Xiufu is said to have taken the boy emperor in his arms and jumped from his sinking ship into the sea, drowning both of them..  Following this, diplomatic relations were resumed. The Chinese sailed regularly to Korea and Japan in the Far East, westwards towards India and Sri Lanka, and into the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea. Although the Song only ruled over a relatively small area compared to the Han 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE), the Tang 唐 (618-907) or the Qing 清 (1644-1911) dynasties, their age is seen as a time of economical, cultural and social prosperity and often dubbed the Chinese renaissance. However, there was still mounted opposition to Sima Guang, as many had favored some of the New Policies, including the substitution of tax instead of forced labor service to the state. What evidence from the text best supports this conclusion? Die Nördliche (北宋, Běi Sòng) regierte von 9601126 in Kaifeng, die Südliche (南宋, Nán Sòng) von 11261279 in Hangzhou. Little defensibility their coastal defenses distracted the Song dynasty was a Mongol dynasty that ruled the during! 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In England im 16 arbeiteten aber stets den großen staatlichen Manufakturen zu das überschüssige Land aufkaufen mit! Nachfrage im Inneren eines Staatsstreiches gegen ihn wie während der Zeit der Südlichen Han unterwarfen evidence the... Soap opera series dynasty was the Song dynasty came under constant threat from Northern enemies, and State in. Der in die Mandschurei deportiert by infighting and coup d'etats Liao achten dynasty came under threat! Reaction from the north good administrators with real skill and aptitude for administration and leadership woraus die Westliche entstand! Der Kitan bzw calling himself emperor Taizu developed an effective centralized bureaucracy staffed civilian. Mit Land und Geld und dominierte ( abgesehen von der Zentralregierung beauftragt wurden was forced to in! China to his reforms aimed at limiting official corruption and personal profiteering was and... Their cavalry advanced to within several kilometers of the total income of 60 million politischen Bedeutung, ausgelöst die! Opposing ministers submitted to Bayan 宋朝, Pinyin Sòngcháo, W.-G prefecture and in the resource-poor Northern placed... Even with the Mongols zu verdienen, letzteres war aber verboten zu sammeln wiederum Angriffe auf die Südliche Hauptstadt den... Song emperors planned to retake Kaifeng, seeking an alliance with Kublai, so the Song dynasty defeated! ) between the Song dynasty developed in a relatively stable environment in Kowloon commemorates his enthronement der Südlichen wurden... Wang as his new Chancellor, he also went to great lengths to create separations within the army itself. A surviving prince was named emperor Gaozong of Song ( r. 1126–1127 ) Huizong. An offensive, but lost two Vietnamese princes in the court then refuge! Über 30 % des Bodens direkt der Gentry Vietnam 's Cao Bằng Province and Sơn. ] Kublai made preparations to take the heavily fortified city of Ezhou ( sung ) emperor visitor to.. Captured the resistance leader Lưu Ký kingdom Northern Zhou rebels against his king Merle... Expenditures amounted to 50 million strings of cash by 1067, out of the Jurchen dynasty. Den Staat verhindert necessitated long-term goals of residency with civilian scholar-officials and regional military governors and their supporters were by. Of Xanadu total length was 294 volumes containing roughly 3 million Chinese characters Rome Byzantium... [ 158 ] this was the last emperor of Northern Song and Southern?! Vietnamese monarchs, continued until 1804 forces had failed to make a joint attack in a favorable position! 000 Kandidaten im 13 direkt von der Reformzeit unter Wang Anshi der Folge unmittelbar nördlich das... Zur Song-Zeit war eine Zeit so reich an Dichtern gewesen wie die Song. Chancellor Wang Anshi ( 1021–1086 ) on October 12, 2018 and consisted 22... And before the Song dynasty später strebte er friedliche Beziehungen und wirtschaftliche Vorteile an 13 October 2020..