kiev russia map
From early morning until late at night taxis and buses, as well as trams and trolley buses convenient for … The above-mentioned sites are also part of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine collection. Ukraine location on the Europe map. Kyiv is completely surrounded by Kyiv Oblast. The oblast state administration and council is located in the Kyiv Oblast council building on ploshcha Lesi Ukrayinky (Lesya Ukrayinka Square). For example, up until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the club won 13 USSR Championships, 9 USSR Cups, and 3 USSR Super Cups, thus making Dynamo the most successful club in the history of the Soviet Top League.. Public opinion polls’ results, "There are up to 1.5 mln undercounted residents in Kiev", "Всеукраїнський перепис населення 2001 | Результати | Основні підсумки | Національний склад населення | місто Киів", "Всеукраїнський перепис населення 2001 | Результати | Основні підсумки | Мовний склад населення | місто Київ", "Ukrainian Municipal Survey, March 2–20 2015", "State-sponsored Anti-Semitism in Postwar USSR. The city state administration and council is located in the Kyiv City council building on Khreshchatyk Street. This map was created by a user. These newer districts of the city, along with some older areas were then named in honour of prominent communists and socialist-revolutionary figures; however, due to the way in which many communist party members eventually, after a certain period of time, fell out of favour and so were replaced with new, fresher minds, so too did the names of Kyiv's districts change accordingly. Kiev is the center of political, industrial, commercial, scientific, educational, and cultural of entire … Position your mouse over the map and use your mouse-wheel to zoom in or out. The horse chestnut tree is one of the symbols of Kyiv. Calculate the distance from Kiev Russia to Magadan Russia.  According to a 2006 survey, Ukrainian is used at home by 23% of Kyivans, 52% use Russian and 24% switch between both. Maps; Transport; Visit Kiev Ukraine > Attractions Attractions. None of the Polish-Russian treaties concerning Kyiv were ever ratified. 0 star 1 star 2 stars 3 stars 4 stars 5 stars. Kyiv is the undisputed center of business and commerce of Ukraine and home to the country's largest companies, such as Naftogaz Ukrainy, Energorynok and Kyivstar. Many historic areas of Kyiv, such as Andriyivskyy Descent, have become popular street vendor locations, where one can find traditional Ukrainian art, religious items, books, game sets (most commonly chess) as well as jewellery for sale. In May 2011 Kyiv authorities presented a 15-year development strategy which calls for attracting as much as EUR82 billion of foreign investment by 2025 to modernize the city's transport and utilities infrastructure and make it more attractive for tourists.. Other significant cultural centres include the Dovzhenko Film Studios, and the Kyiv Circus. In 1918, after the Ukrainian People's Republic declared independence from Soviet Russia, Kyiv became its capital. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the Kievan Rus', the first East Slavic state. Touristic places Art … , In English, Kiev appeared in print as early as 1804 in John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities", and in Mary Holderness's 1823 travelogue New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev The Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation published by 1883, and Kyiv in 2018. Most of Kyiv's attractions as well as the majority of business and governmental institutions are located on the right bank. Old maps of Kiev on Old Maps Online. The municipality of the city of Kyiv has a special legal status within Ukraine compared to the other administrative subdivisions of the country. 1 : 2217600 Letts, Son & Co. Boheme, Silesie, Moravie et Lusace.  Although a record high, the decline in activity was 1.6 percentage points smaller than that for the country as a whole. 29-31, Kiev, Ukraine, 1894; Lviv, Ukraine. To use the map simply scroll east, west, north and south, and zoom closer and … Kyiv (Kiev) and Sevastopol’ are two municipalities of special status. Other detailed maps of Kiev. But, this is where I went (well, most places) and I can verify that these places currently do exist, despite maybe not existing for too much longer depending on how this whole Ukrainification goes. 1025x747 / 247 Kb Go to Map. Once a well maintained and widely used method of transport, the system is now gradually being phased out in favor of buses and trolleybuses.  After it was rebuilt in the fifteenth century, Kyiv was called by the Turkic (Crimean Tatar) name Menkerman or Mankerman.. Its sacred sites, which include the Kyiv Pechersk Lavra (the Monastery of the Caves) and the Saint Sophia Cathedral are probably the most famous, attracted pilgrims for centuries and now recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site remain the primary religious centres as well as the major tourist attraction. Earth / Ukraine / Kiev City Municipality / Kiev / Places in Kiev . Kiev On Map Ukraine Russia Kiev Russian World Map Ukraine Kiev Map Location Kiev City Map Moscow Russia Map Ukraine Map Europe Ukraine Map in English Ancient Kiev Map Kyiv Ukraine Map Kievan Rus Map Ukraine River Map Dnieper River Russia Map Odessa Russia Map Ukraine Map Google Ukraine Road Map Map of Ukraine Area Russian Crimea Map Ukraine Russia War Poland-Ukraine Map Ukraine Capital Map … , Kyiv has a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). Get Kyiv's weather and area codes, time zone and DST. Kyiv (Kiev) Tourism: Tripadvisor has 193,066 reviews of Kyiv (Kiev) Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Kyiv (Kiev) resource. The suburban train service is fast, and unbeatably safe in terms of traffic accidents. 4786x2869 / 10,6 Mb Go to Map.  It was heavily present on the city's coat of arms used from 1969 to 1995. Maps of Russia Geography pages for Dr. Rollinson's Courses and Where is Kiev, Ukraine? SEE RODINA MAT. Their Collection of Jewish Musical Folklore (1912–1947) was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2005.. Major interwar events in Soviet Ukraine all affected Kyiv: the 1920s Ukrainization campaign and migration of the rural Ukrainophone population made the Russophone city Ukrainian-speaking and bolstered the development of Ukrainian cultural life; late-1920s industrialization turned the city, a former centre of commerce and religion, into a major industrial, technological, and scientific centre; the 1932–1933 Great Famine devastated the part of the migrant population not registered for ration cards; and Joseph Stalin's Great Purge of 1937–1938 almost eliminated the city's intelligentsia. A 2015 study by the International Republican Institute found that 94% of Kyiv was ethnic Ukrainian, and 5% ethnic Russian.  In the 2003 sociological survey, when the question 'What language do you use in everyday life?'  Experiencing rapid population growth between the 1970s and the mid-1990s, the city has continued its consistent growth after the turn of the millennium. The etymology of Sambat has been argued by many historians including Grigoriy Ilyinsky, Nikolay Karamzin, Jan Potocki, Nikolay Lambin, Joachim Lelewel, Guðbrandur Vigfússon and many others.  The population around Kyiv during the Bronze Age formed part of so-called Trypillian culture, as attested by objects found in the area. The older and higher western part of the city sits on numerous wooded hills (Kyiv Hills), with ravines and small rivers. Share | Description: The map showing location map of Kiev in Ukraine. The exclave of Russia, Kaliningrad also borders the Baltic Sea as well as Lithuania and Poland.  In 1203 Prince Rurik Rostislavich and his Kipchak allies captured and burned Kyiv. The Metro carries around 1.422 million passengers daily accounting for 38% of the Kyiv's public transport load. From November 2013 until February 2014, central Kyiv became the centre of the Euromaidan demonstrations, which led to flight of a president from the country. The Kyiv public transport system, except for taxi, uses a simple flat rate tariff system regardless of distance traveled: tickets or tokens must be purchased each time a vehicle is boarded. Kyiv hosts many universities, the major ones being Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, the National Technical University "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute", Kyiv-Mohyla Academy and the Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics. Some can be seen from the inside. Kyiv is known as a green city with two botanical gardens and numerous large and small parks. The city probably existed as a commercial center as early as the 5th century. Best Chicken Kiev in Moscow, Central Russia: Find 6,792 Tripadvisor traveller reviews of THE BEST Chicken Kiev and search by price, location, and more. One of the artifacts archaeologists have unearthed from the city is a talisman with the face of Odin, the Nors… There is also an intra-city ring railway service. Explore Kyiv's sunrise and sunset, moonrise and moonset. Money, money, money – Kristina … The city boomed again during the years of Soviet industrialization as its population grew rapidly and many industrial giants were established, some of which exist today. The city is close to the mouth of the Desna River and the Kyiv Reservoir in the north, and the Kaniv Reservoir in the south. The National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War is a memorial complex commemorating the Eastern Front of World War II located in the hills on the right-bank of the Dnieper River in Pechersk. During the Russian industrial revolution in the late nineteenth century, Kyiv became an important trade and transportation centre of the Russian Empire, specialising in sugar and grain export by railway and on the Dnieper river. From 1921 onwards Kyiv was a city of Soviet Ukraine, which was proclaimed by the Red Army, and, from 1934, Kyiv was its capital. In the late 1840s historian Mykola Kostomarov founded a secret political society, the Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius, whose members put forward the idea of a federation of free Slavic peoples with Ukrainians as a distinct and separate group rather than a subordinate part of the Russian nation; the Russian authorities quickly suppressed the society. In 1917, there were 8 Raion Councils (Duma), which were reorganised by bolsheviks into 6 Party-Territory Raions. With the election of the new mayor-elect (Leonid Chernovetsky) in 2006, these plans were shelved. 1 : 2217600 Letts, Son & Co. Boheme, Silesie, Moravie et Lusace. Map Of Kiev Russia.  However, according to the 1773 "Dictionary of Ancient Geography" of Alexander Macbean, the settlement corresponds to modern city of Chernobyl.  The warmest months are June, July, and August, with mean temperatures of 13.8 to 24.8 °C (56.8 to 76.6 °F). Remove from favorites Add to favorites. They were … The Kyiv Funicular was constructed during 1902–1905. The city's name is said to derive from the name of Kyi, one of its four legendary founders.  However, enthusiasts among ethnic Ukrainian nobles, military and merchants made recurrent attempts to preserve native culture in Kyiv (by clandestine book-printing, amateur theatre, folk studies etc.). However, this system still fails to meet the demand for passenger service. Kiev was a major export point for the massive amounts of grain and sugar produced by Russia. It is in north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper River . The Kyiv Opera group was formally established in the summer of 1867, and is the third oldest in Ukraine, after Odessa Opera and Lviv Opera. The National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War is located here, which offers both indoor and outdoor displays of military history and equipment surrounded by verdant hills overlooking the Dnieper river. As shown in the given Kiev location map that Kiev is located in on the Dnieper River in the central-north region of Ukraine. As the centre of Kyivan (Kievan) Rus, the first eastern Slavic state, 1,000 years ago, it acquired the title “Mother of Rus Cities.” It was severely damaged during World War II, but by the mid-1950s it had been restored, and in … Satellite view is showing Kiev, largest city and the national capital of Ukraine. The 100-year-old Kyiv Zoo is located on 40 hectares and according to CBC "the zoo has 2,600 animals from 328 species". It offers a completely new format of IT education. Map of Eighteenth Century Russia. The Arctic Ocean borders Russia to the north and the Pacific to the east. Along with Saint Petersburg - Kiev distance, you can also find current time & time difference between Kiev and Saint Petersburg, lattitude & longitude of both cities and flight duration. This territory houses several "mini-villages" that represent by region the traditional rural architecture of Ukraine. Railways are Kyiv's main mode of intracity and suburban transportation. Kievan or Kyivan Rus' (Old East Slavic: Роусь, romanized: Rusĭ, or роусьскаѧ землѧ, romanized: rusĭskaę zemlę) was a loose federation of East Slavic and Finno-Ugric peoples in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Varangian Rurik dynasty. Country Details Ukraine gained its independence in 1991, with the break up of the former Soviet Union. The place name Kyiv is standardized in the authoritative database of Ukraine's toponyms maintained by Ukraine's mapping agency Derzhheokadastr. Kyiv Київ Kiev City with special status Top-down, left-right … , According to the census of 1897, of Kyiv's approximately 240,000 people approximately 56% of the population spoke the Russian language, 23% spoke the Ukrainian language, 13% spoke Yiddish, 7% spoke Polish and 1% spoke the Belarusian language.. According to the census, some 1,393,000 (53.3%) were female and 1,219,000 (46.7%) were male. Boating, fishing, and water sports are popular pastimes in Kyiv. Ukrainians constitute the largest ethnic group in Kyiv, and they account for 2,110,800 people, or 82.2% of the population. Description Legal. Kyiv has many professional and amateur football clubs, including Dynamo Kyiv, Arsenal Kyiv and FC Obolon Kyiv but only Dynamo Kyiv play in the Ukrainian Premier League. The most expensive properties are located in the Pechersk, and Khreshchatyk areas. The centre of Kyiv has been cleaned up and buildings have been restored and redecorated, especially Khreshchatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti. Ordinary tourists generally come from May to October, business tourists from September to May.. The historian Julius Brutzkus in his work "The Khazar Origin of Ancient Kiev" hypothesizes that both Sambat and Kyiv are of Khazar origin meaning "hill fortress" and "lower settlement" respectively. Within the city the Dnieper River forms a branching system of tributaries, isles, and harbors within the city limits. Kiev is the industrial, scientific, educational, and cultural center of Ukraine. Use our travel planning tools to get the distance, driving directions, mileage and road journey times for a trip. The Ukrainian name is Ки́їв, written in the Ukrainian Cyrillic alphabet, and usually rendered in Latin letters (or romanized) as Kyiv. In 2010 the city accounted for 18% of national retail sales and 24% of all construction activity. The Kyiv-Sviatoshyn Raion state administration is located near Kiltseva doroha (Ring Road) on prospekt Peremohy (Victory Parkway), while the Kyiv-Svyatoshyn Raion local council is located on vulytsia Yantarna (Yantarnaya Street). The Primary Chronicle dates Oleg's conquest of the town in 882, but some historians, such as Omeljan Pritsak and Constantine Zuckerman, dispute that arguing that Khazar rule continued as late as the 920s (among notable historical documents are the Kyivan letter and Schechter Letter). Kyiv prospered when it became the third most important city of the Empire and the major centre of commerce of the Russian empire's southwest. There are 5 elektrichka directions from Kyiv: More than a dozen of elektrichka stops are located within the city allowing residents of different neighborhoods to use the suburban trains. Each residential region has its own market, or rynok. The total driving distance from Kiev, Ukraine to Moscow, Russia is 535 miles or 861 kilometers.. Noteworthy historical architectural landmarks also include the Mariyinsky Palace (designed and constructed from 1745 to 1752, then reconstructed in 1870), several Orthodox churches such as St. Michael's Cathedral, St. Andrew's, St. Vladimir's, the reconstructed Golden Gate and others.  The economy in Kyiv, as in the rest of Ukraine, recovered somewhat in 2010 and 2011. There are monthly passes in all combinations of public transportation. Axis forces killed or captured more than 600,000 Soviet soldiers in the great encirclement of the 1941 Battle of Kyiv. Alternative romanizations used in English-language sources include Kyïv, (according to the ALA–LC romanization used in bibliographic cataloguing), Kyjiv (scholarly transliteration used in linguistics), and Kyyiv (the 1965 BGN/PCGN transliteration standard). The first known formal subdivision of Kyiv dates to 1810 when the city was subdivided into 4 parts: Pechersk, Starokyiv, and the first and the second parts of Podil. Where is Kiev Located As shown in the given Kiev location map that Kiev is located in on the Dnieper River in the central-north region of Ukraine. ", How relations between Ukraine and Russia should look like? On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius (London, 1570) the name of the city is spelled Kiou. In 2004–2005, the city played host to the largest post-Soviet public demonstrations up to that time, in support of the Orange Revolution against an attempt to steal a presidential election. As of 2018 the hotel occupancy rate from May to September averages 45–50%. It’s a good place to spend an hour or so while waiting for your train. TOP 5 THINGS TO DO IN KIEV. The spelling Kiev may still appear in historical contexts, the dish chicken Kiev and when quoting written material... "The New York Times has switched to Kyiv, instead of Kiev, as the spelling for the Ukrainian capital. ** – calculated at annual average official exchange rate; Budivelnyk was founded in 1945, Sokil was founded in 1963, during the existence of the Soviet Union. ), кїєво or кїєвом (ins. Average prices of apartments are the highest in the country and among the highest in eastern Europe. The modern nations of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraineall claim Kievan Rus' as their cultural ancestors, with Belarus and Russia deriving their names from it. However, the peak of summer draws out a greater mass of people to the shores for swimming or sunbathing, with daytime high temperatures sometimes reaching 30 to 34 °C (86 to 93 °F). It is heavily subsidized by the city. Scientific research is conducted in many institutes of higher education and, additionally, in many research institutes affiliated with the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Both Ukrainian and Russian are commonly spoken in the city; approximately 75% of Kyiv's population responded "Ukrainian" to the 2001 census question on their native language, roughly 25% responded "Russian". , Kyiv is home to some 40 different museums. Map of Russia and Ukraine.  According to archaeological data, the foundation of Kyiv dates to the second half of the fifth century and the first half of the sixth. Kyiv is a middle-income city, with prices comparable to many mid-size American cities (i.e., considerably lower than Western Europe). It is home to a collection of locomotives, rolling stock and passenger carriages. By 1900 the city had also become a significant industrial centre with a population of 250,000. Kiev Train Station. Read More. Some 1,069,700 people had higher or completed secondary education, a significant increase of 21.7% since 1989. The education is completely free for all trainees subject to compliance with the terms of the program. Find out how the crisis in Ukraine has spread since November 2013, from anti-government protests in Kiev to a pro-Russian insurgency in Crimea and eastern regions. Later, Oleg of Novgorod won control of Kiev, thus founding the state of Russia.  Indeed, even as the rate of joblessness jumped to 7.1% in 2009, it remained far below the national average of 9.6%.  Some of the early, ultimately not materialised, ideas included a part of Pechersk, Lypky, European Square and Mykhailivska Square. Andriyivskyy Descent is one of the best known historic streets and a major tourist attraction in Kyiv. The line consists of only two stations. It is said that one can walk from one end of Kyiv to the other in the summertime without leaving the shade of its many trees. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours, first Lithuania, then Poland and Russia.. Babi Yar (Russian: Бабий Яр; Ukrainian: Бабин Яр, Babyn Yar) is a ravine in the … Kyiv had not recovered from Bogolyubsky's sack, when in 1240 Batu Khan's Mongol invasion of Rus' completed its destruction. City Maps. Distance To Moscow From Kiev is: 471 miles / 758 km / 409.29 … Scattered Slavic settlements existed in the area from the sixth century, but it is unclear whether any of them later developed into the city. Having survived the Mongol Empire, WWII, Chernobyl, and Soviet rule, Kyiv is the proud capital of the Ukraine.  Bridges over the Dnieper River are another problem restricting the development of city's railway system. Map showing location of Kiev Train Station. Address search on the electronic map of Kyiv. The Primary Chronicles state that at some point during the late ninth or early tenth century Kyiv was ruled by Askold and Dir, possibly of Viking or Varangian descent, who were murdered by Oleg of Novgorod. About Ukraine: Ukraine is a second largest country after Russian Federation in Eastern Europe where it is located. To this day there’s a Kyivan neighbourhood known as Uhorske urochyshche, "Hungarian place", better known as Askold's Grave. Renowned Ukrainian composer Oleksandr Bilash wrote an operetta called "Legend of Kyiv". Perhaps the earliest original manuscript to name the city is the Kyivan letter, written ca. VISIT THE PECHERSK LAVRA. The Metro is expanding towards the city limits to meet growing demand, having three lines with a total length of 66.1 kilometres (41.1 miles) and 51 stations (some of which are renowned architectural landmarks). Given below is the distance between Kiev, Ukraine and Saint Petersburg, Russia. All public road transport (except for some minibuses) is operated by the united Kyivpastrans municipal company. Chronology 1672 - 1725 Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia 1709 - 1761 Elizabeth Petrova, Empress of Russia beginning 1741 1721 Birth of St. Dositheos 1722 Birth of Staretz Paissy (Velichkovsky) 1723 - 1730 Dositheos at the Monastery of the Ascension in Moscow 1730 - 1736 Dositheos at his family home 1736 - 1739 Dositheos a novice at the Lavra of St. Sergey of … Russians comprise 337,300 (13.1%), Jews 17,900 (0.7%), Belarusians 16,500 (0.6%), Poles 6,900 (0.3%), Armenians 4,900 (0.2%), Azerbaijanis 2,600 (0.1%), Tatars 2,500 (0.1%), Georgians 2,400 (0.1%), Moldovans 1,900 (0.1%). 16%) were foreigners. Maps; Transport; Visit Kiev Ukraine > Attractions Attractions. , From 1921 to 1991 the city formed part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which became a founding republic of the Soviet Union in 1922. The names Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv of the Kyiv Chronicle may be non-Slavic, and historians have always struggled to account for their meanings and origins. Ticket prices are regulated by the city government, and the cost of one ride is far lower than in Western Europe. Kyiv emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine; parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections.. Most of those captured never returned alive. From early morning until late at night taxis and buses, as well as trams and trolley buses convenient for traveling short distances, are cruising through the streets. Kyiv's most famous historical architecture complexes are the St. Sophia Cathedral and the Kyiv Pechersk Lavra (Monastery of the Caves), which are recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Just south of Azagarium, there is another settlement of Amadoca, which supposedly was the capital of Amadoci people, living between the marshes of Amadoca in the west and Amadoca mountains in the east. The first known humans in the region of Kyiv lived there in the late paleolithic period (Stone Age). All of Russia's former republics then formed the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), with headquarters in Minsk, Belarus. It is bordered by Romania, Hungary and Moldova to the southwest; Belarus to the northwest; Russia in the east; and Poland and Slovakia in the west. Novaya Darnitsa; Pushcha-Voditsa; Staraya Darnitsa ; Locate me; Kiev . Geographically, Kyiv is located on the border of the Polesia woodland ecological zone, a part of the European mixed woods area, and the East European forest steppe biome. Ukraine Mulls Turning Chernobyl Exclusion Zone Into a UNESCO Heritage Object Sputnik (EN) The Zone , Kiev , Earth , Power Plant , Vladimir . The northern outskirts of the city border the Polesian Lowland.  Notable archaeologists of the area around Kyiv include Vikentiy Khvoyka. , According to the UN 2011 evaluation, there were no risks of natural disasters in Kyiv and its metropolitan area. Read More. We love the kiev russia map and wording of the kiev russia map. Other notable sites is the cylindrical Salut hotel, located across from Glory Square and the eternal flame at the World War Two memorial Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, and the House with Chimaeras. , The city was known by various names in history.  Zānbat, chief city of the Rus, is mentioned by Ahmad ibn Rustah, Abu Sa'id Gardezi, and an author of the Hudud al-'Alam, who traveled the area in the tenth century. Its population in July 2015 was 2,887,974 (though higher estimated numbers have been cited in the press), making Kyiv the seventh-most populous city in Europe. Kyiv, also spelled Kiev, Kyyiv, Russian Kiyev, chief city and capital of Ukraine. Purportedly in response to the actions of the NKVD, the Germans rounded up all the local Jews they could find, nearly 34,000, and massacred them at the Babi Yar ravine on 29 and 30 September 1941.  In 1000 AD the city had a population of 45,000. The Ukraine national football team, for example, will play matches at the re-constructed Olympic Stadium from 2011. Modern Kyiv is a mix of the old (Kyiv preserved about 70 percent of more than 1,000 buildings built during 1907–1914) and the new, seen in everything from the architecture to the stores and to the people themselves. Click here for a detailed map showing all points of interest. Kyiv changed hands sixteen times from the end of 1918 to August 1920. Kiev Map Show map. There are about 530 general secondary schools and ca. In the turbulent period following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Kyiv became the capital of several successive Ukrainian states and was caught in the middle of several conflicts: World War I, during which German soldiers occupied it from 2 March 1918 to November 1918, the Russian Civil War of 1917 to 1922, the Soviet–Ukrainian War of 1917–1921, and the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921. 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