Psychoanalytic theory: Schizophrenia is a regression to the oral stage when the ego has not emerged from the id. Start studying Infectious Diseases: Theories of disease causation. To conceptualize and elucidate the myriad social and biological processes resulting in embodiment and its manifestation in populations' epidemiol… It is, I will argue, to speak of embodiment. I Primitive Medicine . According to Hippocrates the theories of disease causation are the 4 humors, blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile. It is a particular abnormal, pathological condition that affects part or all of an organism. Start studying Stages of Illness, Theories of Disease Causation. References. Table of Contents. Genetics If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. In contrast, other explanatory models may include mystical, personalistic and naturalistic causes of illness or disease (Anderson, 1983; Tan, 1987; Tompar-Tiu & Sustento-Seneriches, 1995). It begins with a typology of the theories of illness encounteredin a world survey, continues with an exposition of my theoreticalorientation and methodology, then analyzes the geographical distribution of the major supernatural concepts of illness, and finallyattempts to account scientifically for their occurrence, incidence, andperpetuation. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. CHAPTER 10 THEORIES OF MENTAL HEALTH AND ILLNESS: PSYCHODYNAMIC, SOCIAL, COGNITIVE, BEHAVIORAL, HUMANISTIC, AND BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES Patricia Hart O’Regan CHAPTER CONTENTS Mental Illness Theories and Mental Illness EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES After completing this chapter, the student will be able to: 1. A doctor who prescribescontraceptives or performs an abortion, for example, is not treating adisease. Theories and Models of Disease Causation The earliest attempt to attribute a cause to illness occurred during the religious Era (2000 BC to 600 BC). A human being with special powers might be a witch or a sorcerer. Theories of Stress and Its Relationship to Health 23. observed it in patients with such diverse health problems as infections, cancer, and heart disease. The extraordinary differences among cultures in characterizations of illness, conceptions of causation, The major theoretical and research approaches to the causation of mental disorders are treated below. "Theories of Illness will be most interesting and useful to those who are already familiar with, and sympathetic to, the methods and basic assumptions of the comparative method in cross-cultural research. 9. Other studies suggest that different societies give varying degrees of importance to theories of natural com-pared to supernatural causes of illness [11–13]. The third view, the general susceptibility approach to disease causation, recognizes the existence of these patterns and directs attention to a number of possible explanations. Individuals who violated societal norms were thought to be possessed by some evil spirit that forced them to commit evil deeds through the exercise of mysterious supernatural power (Moyer, 2001, p. 13). 2. Mental illness has a complex interrelationship with many other influences in a person’s life: early childhood experiences, poverty, medical problems, upbringing, and genetics. This A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs and symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury is called a disease. Nineteenth century medical advances were entwined with a conceptual innovation: the idea that many cases of disease which were previously thought to have diverse causes could be explained by the action of a single kind of cause, e.g. In social epidemiology, to speak of theory is simultaneously to speak of society and biology. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Copyright © 1980 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Social Science & Medicine. Index. Evil forces cause illness in retaliation for moral and spiritual failings. This study explored the indigenous beliefs of ill-health causation among those living in the Tehuledere Woreda /district/ in North East Ethiopia from a socio-cultural perspective. He noted that the syndrome probably represented an expression of a generalized “call to arms” of the body’s defensive forces in reaction to excessive demands or provocative stimuli. Theories about health and illness deal with the ideas people use to explain how to maintain a healthy state and why they become ill. Ideas about illness causation may include such ideas as breach of taboo, soul loss, germs, upset in the hot-cold balance of the body, or a weakening of the body's immune system. Theories of Disease. Organic explanations of mental illness have usually been genetic, biochemical, neuropathological, or a combination of these. It contains an excellent and thorough, though brief, introduction to the history of this sort of research, and an equally good presentation of the methods used." Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. (2004). Selected pages. Bacteria and Viruses are the best know pathogens. At issue is how we literally incorporate, biologically, the world around us, a world in which we simultaneously are but one biological species among many—and one whose labour and ideas literally have transformed the face of this earth. Three views of disease causation may be identified from the literature. Fungi, protozoa’s and parasites can also cause disease. Rather than depression, a far more common correlation between mental illness and violent behavior is substance abuse; but unfortunately, substance abuse itself can either be a cause of, or a consequence of, mental illness. Both these types of explanation of disease have weaknesses insofar as they fail to adequately account for a range of findings. This paper was written while the author was visiting the Department of Socio-Medical Sciences and Community Medicine, Boston University, School of Medicine. This evidence would appear to be sufficiently convincing to justify experimental intervention programs. Theories of Causation of Crime and Its Solution 1238 Words 5 Pages If we studied through the history of criminal theory, spiritual and natural theories are taken as major theories of causation of crime. As there is no distinct ego, by regressing to the primary narcissistic stage, schizophrenics lose contact with the world. It is indeed a great source of knowledge in relation to the anthropology of illness. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. These findings indicate that there are groups in some societies which are at an advantage or disadvantage for many apparently different causes of illness and death. 89-112. Understanding perceptions of the causes of ill-health common in indigenous communities may help policy makers to design effective integrated primary health care strategies to serve these communities. In addition, it is very diff… Theories of Disease Causation Supernatural Theories: curse, evil force of the demon. Doctors are called on to deal with many states of affairs. These postulates enabled the germ theory of disease to achieve dominance in medicine over other theories, such as humors and miasma. Despite these inadequacies, it is clear that a substantial body of evidence tends to verify the existence of a general susceptibility to disease and death. Neither of these classes of theories of illness contains the simplicity and clarity required for a useful scientific theory of illness. Describe how the definitions of mental illness have developed … Soc, Set & Med, Vol 14A, pp 231 to 237 Pergamon Press Ltd 1980 Printed m Great Brltam THEORIES OF DISEASE CAUSATION AND THE CONCEPT OF A GENERAL SUSCEPTIBILITY: A REVIEW JACKOB M, NAJMAN Departments of Social and Prevenhve Medicine and Sociology, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia Abstract--Three views of &sease causation may be … The first is the monocausal view and emerges from the “conquest” of the infectious diseases. Part A: Medical Psychology & Medical Sociology, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-7123(80)91733-2. This refers to one to one relationship between the causative agent and disease. I demonstrate how local theories of illness transmission indicate a dynamic interaction between spatial domains and social relationships. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. 23, No. The second approach emphasizes the concept of multicausality and derives its popularity largely from the study of the diseases of industrialized societies. In a personalistic system of belief, illness is believed to be caused by the intervention of a supernatural being or a human being with special powers. ADVERTISEMENTS: Some of the important theories of schizophrenia are as follows: 1. CAUSATIVE AGENT MAN DISEASECAUSE EFFECT (FOR EX..DIPTHERIA DUE TO CORNEBACYERIUMDIPTHERIA) Such a focus may well be more useful for health planners than the one that emphasizes the differences between African and biomedical notions of causation. Simi… Some women cannot risk pregnancy for health reasons, andhistorically both pregnancy and childbirth have been major killers.Nevertheless,they are not disease states, and modern women typicallyuse contraception or abortion in the service of autonomy and controlover their lives. Naturalistic theories of disease causation tend to view health as a state of harmony between a human being and his or her environment; when this balance is upset, illness will result. a certain Disease Causation – Henle-Koch Postulates: (1877) A set of 4 criteria to be met before the relationship between a particular infectious agent and a particular disease is accepted as causal. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. The second approach emphasizes the concept of multicausality and derives its popularity largely from the study of the diseases of industrialized societies. Title Page. retribution); theories of animistic causation (i.e., soul loss, and spirit aggression); and theories of magical causation (i.e., sorcery and witchcraft) [10]. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. 3: II Theories of Natural Causation . Medical Anthropology: Vol. THEORIES OF HEALTH AND ILLNESS. Its Organisms that cause disease inside the human body are called pathogens. Mental disorder - Mental disorder - Theories of personality development: Freudian and other psychodynamic theories view neurotic symptoms as arising from intrapsychic conflict—i.e., the existence of conflicting motives, drives, impulses, and feelings held within various components of the mind. ADVERTISEMENTS: There is heightening of […] You can change your ad preferences anytime. Health Beliefs and Behaviors: Theories of Illness Physical and mental health and illness are viewed holistically as an equilibrium model. No public clipboards found for this slide. Theories of Causation ... illness) focused on demon or spirit possession (demonology). Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Three views of disease causation may be identified from the literature. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. If someone has violated a social norm or breached a religious taboo, he or she may invoke the wrath of a deity and their sickness is explained as a form of divine punishment. During this period the disease was thought to be Caused by the divine power as punishment for sins as bad deeds or considered as fate. This paper focuses on the topic relating to the crime causation, in which we have discussed the theories regarding the topic with the similarities and differentiation. Nursing 1st year. A supernatural being might be a deity or a dead ancestor. 8: ... Theories of Illness: A World Survey The two most plausible of these explanations focus on the experience of stress (psychosomatic explanation) or the health consequences of particular lifestyles (sociosomatic explanation). Organic and hereditary etiologies. Contents. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. 1. 2, pp. Models of Causation – Health Determinants April, 2012 Core Body of Knowledge for the Generalist OHS Professional Models of Causation: Health Determinants Abstract Health is a state with both negative and positive dimensions; it extends beyond the absence of diseases and disorders to encompass personal wellbeing more generally. It drew its framework from the symbolic interactionism school of sociology so at its root this theory sought to examine the ways in which roles and actors interacted and played out within the drama of mental illness (Pilgrim and Rogers, 1999. THE GERM THEORY: According to this theory, there is one single specific cause of every disease. The first is the monocausal view and emerges from the “conquest” of the infectious diseases. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Each of these explanations fails, in some respects, to account for all the available data. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Theories of disease causation and the concept of a general susceptibility: A review. Not all ofthem, on any theory, are diseases. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Illness Transmission and Proximity: Local Theories of Causation among the Bissa in Burkina Faso. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. The Germ theory viewed diseases in terms of a causal network similar to that of Fracastoro, but with much more detail about the nature of germs and possible treatments. Theories of disease causation Presented by: Monika sharma M.Sc. 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